2001年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案

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以下是考研小编为大家整理的2001年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案,希望对考生有帮助!

注意事项:

1.本试题的答案必须填写在规定的答题卡(ANSWER SHEET 1)和答题纸(ANSWER SHEET 2)上,写在试题上不给分。

2.第Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ部分的答案须用铅笔填涂在答题卡(ANSWER SHEET 1)上,第Ⅳ、Ⅴ部分的答案须用蓝、黑墨水笔或圆珠笔写在答题纸(ANSWER SHEET 2)上。用红色笔者不给分。

3.选择题答案选出后,必须用2B铅笔把答题卡(ANSWER SHEET 1)上的选中项涂满涂黑,如:[A][B][■][D]。修改时,必须用橡皮擦净后,再填涂其它选项。

4.考试结束后,将答题卡(ANSWER SHEET 1)和答题纸(ANSWER SHEET 2)一并装入试卷袋内。装答题卡(ANSWER SHEET 1)时不准折叠。

Part I Structure and Vocabulary

Section A

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked[A],[B],[C]and[D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)

Example:

I have been to the Great Wall three times _______ 1979.

[A]from [B]after [C]for [D]since

The sentence should read, “I have been to the Great Wall three times since 1979.”

Therefore, you should choose [D]

Sample Answer [A][B][C][■]

1.If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I______ my head in my hands for a cry.

[A]bury [B]am burying [C]buried [D]would bury

2.Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port _______ half a day before the defenders actually surrendered.

[A]to announce [B]announced [C]announcing [D]was announced

3.According to one belief, if truth is to be known it will make itself ap parent, so one ______ wait instead of searching for it.

[A]would rather [B]had to [C]cannot but [D]had best

4.She felt suitably humble just as she _______ when he had first taken a good look at her city self, hair waved and golden, nails red and pointed.

[A]had [B]had had [C]would have had [D]has had

5.There was no sign that Mr Jospin, who keeps a firm control on the party despite from _______ leadership of it, would intervene personally.

[A]being resigned [B]having resigned [C]going to resign[D]resign

6.So involved with their computers _______ that leaders at summer computer caps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

[A]became the cildren [B]become the children [C]had the children become [D]do the children become

7.The individual TV viewer invariably senses that he or she is _______ an anonymous, statistically insignificant part of a huge and diverse audience.

[A]everything except [B]anything but [C]no less than [D]nothing more than

8.One difficulty in translation lies in obtaining a concept match._______ this is meant that a concept in one language is lost or changed in meaning in translation.

[A]By [B]In [C]No less than [D]Nothing more than

9.Conversation becomes weaker in a society that spends so much time listening and being talked to _______ it has all but lost the will and the skill to speak for itself.

[A]as [B]which [C]that [D]what

10.Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions,_______ they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist,Jewish, and so on.

[A]be [B]being [C]were [D]are

Section B

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked[A],[B],[C]and[D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

Example:

The lost car of the Lees was found _______ in the woods off the highway.

[A]vanished [B]scattered [C]abandoned [D]rejected

The sentence should read, “The lost car of the Lees was found abandoned in the

woods off the highway.”Therefore, you should choose [C].

Sample Answer[A][B][■][D]

11.He is too young to be able to _______ between right and wrong.

[A]discard [B]discern [C]disperse [D]disregard

12.It was no _______ that his car was seen near the bank at the time of the robbery.

[A]coincidence [B]convention [C]certainty [D]complication

13.One of the responsibilities of the Coast Guard is to make sure that all ships _______ follow traffic rules in busy harbors.

[A]cautiously [B]dutifully [C]faithfully [D]skillfully

14.The Eskimo is perhaps one of the most trusting and considerate of all Indians but seems to be the _______ welfare of his animals.

[A]critical about [B]indignant at [C]indifferent to [D]subject to

15.The chairman of the board _______ on me the unpleasant job of dismissing good workers the firm can no longer afford to employ.

[A]compelled [B]posed [C]pressed [D]tempted

16.It is naive to expect that any society can resolve all the social problems it is faced with _______ .

[A]for long [B]in and out [C]once for all [D]by nature

17.Using extremely different decorating schemes in adjoining rooms may result in _______

and lack of unity in style.

[A]conflict [B]confrontation [C]disturbance [D]disharmony

18.The Timber rattlesnake is now on the endangered species list, and is extinct in two eastern states in which it once _______ .

[A]thrived [B]swelled [C]prospered [D]flourished

19.However, growth in the fabricated metals industry was able to _______ some of the decline in the iron and steel industry.

[A]overturn [B]overtake [C]offset [D]oppress

20.Because of its intimacy, radio is usually more than just a medium it is _______ .

[A]firm [B]company [C]corporation [D]enterprise

21.When any non?human organ is transplanted into a person, the body immediately recognizes it as _______ .

[A]novel [B]remote [C]distant [D]foreign

22.My favorite radio song is the one I first heard on a thick 1923 Edison disc I _______ at a garage sale.

[A]trifled with [B]scraped through [C]stumbled upon [D]thirsted for

23.Some day software will translate both written and spoken language so well that the need for any common second language could _______ .

[A]descend [B]decline [C]deteriorate [D]depress

24.Equipment not ______ official safety standards has all been removed from the workshop.

[A]conforming to [B]consistent with [C]predominant over[D]providing for

25.As an industry, biotechnology stands to _______ electronics in dollar volume and perhaps surpass it in social impact by 2020.

[A]contend [B]contest [C]rival [D]strive

26.The authors of the United States constitution attempted to establish an effective national government while preserving ______for the states and liberty for individuals.

[A]autonomy [B]dignity [C]monopoly [D]stability

27.For three?quarters of its span on Earth, life evolved almost _______ as microorganisms.

[A]precisely [B]instantly [C]initially [D]exclusively

28.The introduction of gunpowder gradually made the bow and arrow _______ , particularly in Western Europe.

[A]obscure [B]obsolete [C]optional [D]overlapping

29.Whoever formulated the theory of the origin of the universe, it is just _______ and needs proving.

[A]spontaneous [B]hypothetical [C]intuitive [D]empirical

30.The future of this company is _______ : many of its talented employees are flowing into more profitable net?based businesses.

[A]at odds [B]in trouble [C]in vain [D]at stake

Part Ⅱ Cloze Test

Direction:

For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked [A],[B],[C]and[D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(10 points)

The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases 31 the trial of Rosemary West.

In a significant 32 of legal controls over the press, Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will introduce a 33 bill that will propose making payments to witnesses 34 and will strictly control the amount of 35 that can be given to a case 36 a trial begins.

In a letter to Gerald Kaufman, chairman of the House of commons media selectcommittee, Lord Irvine said he 37 with a committee report this year which said that self regulation did not 38 sufficient control.

39 of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a 40 of media protest when he said the

41 of privacy controls contained in European legislation would be left to judges 42 to Parliament.

The Lord Chancellor said introduction of the Human Rights Bill, which 43 the European Convention on Human Rights legally 44 in Britain, laid down that everybody was 45 to privacy and that public figures could go to court to protect themselves and their families.

“Press freedoms will be in safe hands 46 our British judges," he said.

Witness payments became an 47 after West was sentenced to 10 life sentences in 1995. Up to 19 witnesses were 48 to have received payments for telling their stories to newspapers. Conerns were raised 49 witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to 50 guilty verdicts.

31.[A]as to [B]for instance [C]in particular [D]such as

32.[A]tightening [B]intensifying [C]focusing [D]fastening

33.[A]sketch [B]rough [C]preliminary [D]improper

34.[A]illogical [B]illegal [C]improbable [D]improper

35.[A]publicity [B]penalty [C]popularity [D]peculiarity

36.[A]since [B]if [C]before [D]as

37.[A]sided [B]shared [C]complied [D]agreed

38.[A]present [B]offer [C]manifest [D]indicate

39.[A]Release [B]Publication [C]Printing [D]Exposure

40.[A]storm [B]rage [C]flare [D]flash

41.[A]translation [B]interpretation [C]exhibition [D]demonstration

42.[A]better than [B]other than [C]rather than [D]sooner than

43.[A]changes [B]makes [C]sets [D]turns

44.[A]binding [B]convincing [C]restraining [D]sustaining

45.[A]authorized [B]credited [C]entitled [D]qualified

46.[A]with [B]to [C]from [D]by

47.[A]impact [B]incident [C]inference [D]issue

48.[A]stated [B]remarked [C]said [D]told

49.[A]what [B]when [C]which [D]that

50.[A]assure [B]confide [C]ensure [D]guarantee

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension

Directions:

Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers [A],[B],[C]and[D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(40 points)

Passage 1

Specialisation can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialisation was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.

No clear?cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs inscience: exceptions can be found to any rule. Neverthelss, the word `amateur' does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialisation in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widesprad introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, where as the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

Although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

51.The growth of specialisation in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in scien

-ces such as _______ .

[A]sociology and chemistry

[B]physics and psychology

[C]sociology and psychology

[D]physics and chemistry

52.We can infer from the passage that _______.

[A]there is little distinction between specialisation and professionalisation

[B]amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science

[C]professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community

[D]amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones

53.The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate _______.

[A]the process of specialisation and professionalisation

[B]the hardship of amateurs in scientific study

[C]the change of policies in scientific publications

[D]the discrimination of professionals against amateurs

54.The direct reason for specialisation is _______。

[A]the development in communication

[B]the growth of professionalisation

[C]the expansion of scientific knowledge

[D]the splitting up of academic societies

Passage 2

A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so?called digital divide &mdash the division of the world into the info(information) rich and the info poor. And that divide does exist today. My wife and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago. What was less visible then, however, were the new, positive forces that work against the digital divide. There are reasons to be optimistic.

There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access &mdash after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid their countries will be left behind, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a result, I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we've ever had.

Of course, the ue of the Internet isn't the only way to defeat poverty. And the Internet is not the only tool we have. But it has enormous potential.To take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to getover their outdated anti?colonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure (the basic structural foundations of a society) in the United States. When the United States built its industrials infrastructure, it didn't have the capital to do so. And that is why America's Second Wave infrastructure &mdash including roads, barbors, highways, prots and so on &mdash were built with foreign investment. The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain's former colony. They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns them now? The Americans. I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you're going to be. That doesn't mean lying down and becoming fooled, or letting foreign corporations run uncontrolled. But it does means recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet.

55.Digital divide is something _______ .

[A]getting worse because of the Internet

[B]the rich countries are responsible for

[C]the world must guard against

[D]considered positive today

56.Governments attach importance to the Internet because it _______ .

[A]offers economic potentials

[B]can bring foreign funds

[C]can soon wipe out world poverty

[D]connects people all over the world

57.The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of _______ .

[A]providing financial support overseas

[B]preventing foreign capital's control

[C]building industrial infrastructure

[D]accepting foreign investment

58.It seems that now a country's economy depends much on _______ .

[A]how well?developed it is electronically

[B]whether it is prejudiced against immigrants

[C]whether it adopts America's industrial pattern

[D]how much control it has over foreign corporations

Passage 3

Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long self?analysis known as the journalism credibility project.

Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low?level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of heads cratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.

But the sources of distrust go way deeper. Most jounalists learn to see the world through a set of standard templates (patterns) into which they plug each day's events. In other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready made narrative structure for otherwise confusing news.

There exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers, which helps explain why the “standard templates" of the newsroom seem alien to many readers. In a recent survey, questionnaires were sent to reportersin five middle?size cities around the country, plus one large metropolitan area. Then residents in these communities were phoned at random and asked the same questions.

Replies show that compared with other Americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale neighborhoods, have maids, own Mercedeses, and trade stocks,and they're less likely to go to church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in a coummunity.

Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to reflect the conventional values of this elite. The astonishing distrust of the news media isn't rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorials skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers.

This is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. Here is a troubled business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. Then it sponsors lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed and fleeing in large numbers. But it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. If it did, it would open up itsdiversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.

59 What is the passage mainly about?

[A]needs of the readers all over the world

[B]causes of the public disappointment about newspapers

[C]origins of the declining newspaper industry

[D]aims of a journalism credibility project

60.The results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be _______ .

[A]quite trustworthy

[B]somewhat contradictory

[C]very illuminating

[D]rather superficial

61.The basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their _______ .

[A]working attitude

[B]conventional lifestyle

[C]world outlook

[D]educational background

62.Despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to

its _______ .

[A]failure to realize its real problem

[B]tendency to hire annoying reporters

[C]likeliness to do inaccurate reporting

[D]prejudice in matters of race and gender

Passage 4

The world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. The process sweeps from hyperactive America to Europe and reaches the emerging countries with unsurpassed might. Many in these countries are looking at this process and worrying:“Won't the wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrollable anti-competitive force?"

There's no question that the big are getting bigger and more powerful. Multinational corporations accounted for less than 20% of international trade in 1982. Today the figure is more than 25% and growing rapidly. International affiliates account for afast?growing segment of production in economies that open up and welcome foreign investment. In Argentina, for instance, after the reforms of the early 1990s, multinationals went from 43% to almost 70% of the industrial production of the 200 largest firms. This phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world economy.

I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&ampA wave are thesame that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers' demands. All these are beneficial, not detrimental, to consumers. As productivity grows, the world's wealth increases.

Examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. Yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could re?create the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the U.S., when the Standard Oil trust was broken up. The mergers of telecom companies, such as World Com, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress. On the contrary, the price of communications is coming down fast. In cars, too, concentration is increasing &mdash witness Daimler and Chrysler, Renault and Nissan &mdash but it does not appear that consumers are being hurt.

Yet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. A few weeks ago, Alan Greenspan warned against the megamergers in the banking industry. Who is going to supervise, regulate and operate as lender of last resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? Won't multinationals shift production from one place to another when a nation gets too strict about infringements to fair competition? And should one country take upon itself the role of “defending competition" on issues that affect many other nations, as in the U.S. vs. Microsoft case?

63.What is the typical trend of businesses today?

[A]to take in more foreign funds

[B]to invest more abroad

[C]to combine and become bigger

[D]to trade with more countries

64.According to the author, one of the driving forces behind M&ampA wave is _______ .

[A]the greater customer demands

[B]a surplus supply for the market

[C]a growing productivity

[D]the increase of the world's wealth

65.From paragraph 4 we can infer that _______ .

[A]the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers

[B]WorldCom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs

[C]the costs of the gobalization process are enormous

[D]the Standard Oil trust might have threatened competition

66.Toward the new business wave, the writer's attitude can be said to be _______ .

[A]optimistic

[B]objective

[C]pessimistic

[D]biased

Passage 5

When I decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a part of a new international trend. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming “I wanted to spend more time with my family".

Curiously, some two?and?a?half years and two novels later, my experiment in what the Americans term “downshifting" has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality. I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of “have it all", preached by Linda Kelsey for the past seven years in the pages of ?She? magazine, into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything.

I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much?publicized resignation from the editorship of ?She? after a build?up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of “juggling your life", and making the alternative move into “downshifting” brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status. Nothing could persuade me to return to the kind of life Kelsey used to advocate and I once enjoyed: 12-hour working days, pressured deadlines, the fearful strain of office politics and the limitations of being a parent on “quality time”.

In America, the move away from juggling to a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle is a-well-established trend. Downshifting &mdash also known in America as “voluntary simplicity” &mdash has, ironically, even bred a new area of what might betermed anti-consumerism. There are a number of bestselling downshifting self help books for people who want to simplify their lives there are newsletters, such as The Tightwad Gazette, that give hundreds of thousands of Americans usefultips on anything from recycling their cling?film to making their own soap there are even support groups for those who want to achieve the mid?ྖs equivalent of dropping out.

For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the ྌs, downshifting in the mid?ྖs is not so much a search for the mythical good life &mdash growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one &mdash as a personal recognition of your limitations.

67.Which of the following is true according to paragraph 1?

[A]Full?time employment is a new international trend.

[B]The writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job.

[C]“A lateral move" means stepping out of full?time employment.

[D]The writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family.

68.The writer's experiment shows that downshifting _______ .

[A]enables her to realize her dream

[B]helps her mold a new philosophy of life

[C]prompts her to abandon her high social status

[D]leads her to accept the doctrine of ?She? magazine

69.“Juggling one's life” probably means living a life characterized by _______ .

[A]non?materialistic lifestyle

[B]a bit of everything

[C]extreme stree

[D]anti?consumerism

70.According to the passage, downshifting emerged in the U.S. as a result of _______ .

[A]the quick pace of modern life

[B]man's adventurous spirit

[C]man's search for mythical experiences

[D]the economic situation

Part Ⅳ English?Chinese Translation

Directions:

Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(15points)

In less than 30 years' time the Star Trek holodeck will be a reality. Directlinks between the brain's nervous system and a computer will also create full sensory virtual environments, allowing virtual vacations like those in the film Total Recall. 71)There wil be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend. 72)Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell?television, and digital age will have arrived.

According to BT's furturologist, Ian Pearson, these are among the developments scheduled for the first few decades of the new millennium (a period of 1,000 years), when supercomputers will dramatically accelerate progress in all areas of life.

73)Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries totake place. Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine, including an extended life expectancy and dozens of artificial organs coming into use between now and 2040.

Pearson also predicts a breakthrough in computer?human links. “By linking directly to our nervous system, computers could pick up what we feel and, hopefully, simulate feeling too so that we can start to develop full sensory environments, rather like the holidays in Total Recall or the Star Trek holodeck," he says. 74)But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man?machine integration:“It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.”

Through his research, Pearson is able to put dates to most of the breakthroughs that can be predicted. However, there are still no forecasts for when faster?than?light travel will be available, or when human cloning will be perfected,or when time travel will be possible. But he does expect social problems as a result of technological advances. A boom in neighborhood surveillance cameras will, for example, cause problems in 2010, while the arrival of synthetic lifelike robots will mean people may not be able to distinguish between their human friends and the droids. 75)And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder &mdash kitchen rage.

Part Ⅴ Writing

76. Directions:

Among all the worthy fellings of mankind, love is probably the noblest, but everyone has

his/her own understanding of it.

There has been a discussion recently on the issue in a newspaper. Write an essay to the newspaper to

1)show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the picture below,

2)give a specific example, and

3)give your suggestion as to the best way to show love.

Your should write about 200 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20 points)

2001年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题答案解析

1.选[C]。本题重点考查虚拟语气。句子中有两处虚拟语气,一是if ... could be ...,另外是it is time that ... 解题的关键是要判断出第二处的虚拟语气。在It is time that ... 句型中that后的从句中的动词要用过去式,所以[C]buried为正确选项。

2.选[B]。本题重点考查非谓语动词的用法及对句意的理解,可使用排除法来解题。句子的前半部分提到"好消息有时发布得过早",后半部分用一个with短语结构来解释前半部分的内容。因为with短语中要用非谓语动词形式,所以[D]was announced可以予以排除。British recapture of the port(英军重新占据港口)是announce的宾语,而且这一消息又比保卫者实际投降早半天宣布,所以是一个完成的动作。因此空格处只能填入announced来表示"被动完成"的意思。

3.选[D]。本题重点考查考生对句意的理解以及对所给四个短语的掌握情况。从句意来看so前的句子为本题提供了重要的线索,这半句的意思是:根据一种信仰,如果要知道真理,真理会使自己一目了然。由这句可以推理出,了解真理的方法是待而不寻求。所给四个选项表达的意思分别:[A]宁愿[B]不得不,必需[C]只能[D]好。显然只有[D]项是正确答案。had best的意思是"好",相当于had better,后面用动词原形。

4.选[A]。本题重点考查动词的时态。句子的主句用的是一般过去时(felt),由when状语从句的时态(过去完成时)可以判断出as后面的从句的时态也应该用过去完成时,即had felt。为避免重复,felt可以省略。

5.选[B]。本题考查对介词despite及动词resign的掌握情况以及对句意的不理解。despite(尽管…)是一个介词,后面要接名词或动名词,所以[D]是不正确的。resign是一个不及物动词,所以[A]不正确。从句意来看,Mr Jospin已经从领导岗位上退了下来,应该用完成时,所以[C]项也是错误的。

6.选[D]。本题着重考查倒装句的用法。由于so involved放在了句首,句子用倒装形式。因为句子的时态是一般现在时,所以要借助于助动词do来构成倒装。把这句话改变成正常语序是:The children become so involved with their computers that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games(孩子们对他们的电脑如此着迷,以致于电脑令营的领导不得不经常强迫他们停下来,做做体育运动和游戏)。

7.选[D]。本题要求考在把握句意的基础上重点辨析所给四个选项。从句意来看,个体电视观众总是(invariably)觉得他(她)只是巨大的、多样化,观众的微不足道的一部分。如果填入[A][B][C]三个选项,所以表达的意思则正好与句子的正确意思相反,只有[D]nothing more than表达了"仅仅,只不过"的意思。

8.选[A]。本题重点考查对介词的掌握。当下定义或解释某种事物时,常用介词by,构成By ... is meant或者By ..., it is meant ...。

9.选[C]。本题要求考生能够迅速识别出so ... that句型。

10.选[A]。本题重点考查虚拟语气的特殊用法。be they Christian, Islamic ......,相当于whether they are Charistian, Islamic ... (不管他们是基督教、伊斯兰教…)

11.选[B]。本题要求正确区别所给四个选项的意思。[A]discard,抛弃,遗弃[B]discern,辨别,区别[C]disperse,驱散[D]disregard,不理,漠视。本句的句意是:他太年轻,还不能辨明是非。

12.选[A]。所给四个选项的意思分别是:[A]巧合,凑巧[B]会议,传统[C]肯定[D]复杂性。本句大意是:抢劫发生时在银行附近发现她的车绝不是巧合。

13.选[B]。所给四个副词的意思分别是:[A]谨慎地[B]尽职地,顺从地[C]忠实地[D]灵活地,巧妙地。对于轮船来说,遵守交通规则是它们的职责,所以只能选[B]。本句大意:海岸护卫的责任之一就是要确保在繁忙的港湾所有的船只都要尽职地遵守交通规则。

14.选[C]。所给四个形容词短语的意思分别是:[A]对…挑剔[B]对…愤慨[C]对…漠不关心[D]服从于…。句子中的but表明but前后两句的内容是对比转折关系but前半句的意思是:爱斯基摩人也许是所以印地安人中最为信任他人,最体贴的人之一,所给选项中能够和considerate构成反义词的只有[C]。

15.选[C]。[B]posed:提出,陈述[D]tempted:引诱可以很快排除[A][C]互为强干扰项,都表示"强迫"的意思,但只有press才可以用press sth on sb 这样的结构,意思是把…强加于人。本句大意是:董事会主席把解散公司雇佣不起的优秀职员这样讨厌的工作强加于我。

16.选[C]。[A]时间长(久)地[B]里里外里外,彻底[C]最后一次,一次性了结地[D]从本质上。本句大意是:盼望任何社会能够一次性了结地解决它所面临的各种社会问题的做法是幼稚的。

17.选[D]。[A]冲突,矛盾[B]对抗[C]扰乱,动荡[D]不合谐。result in...导致…,产生…(不好的后果)。所填入的词应当和lack of unity一致,所以只能填disharmony。本句大意:在相邻的房间中使用极为不同的装饰方案会导致风格上的不合谐及缺乏一致感。

18.选[A]。所给四个选项中除了[B]swelled,其他三项都表示"繁荣,旺盛"的意思,但[A]thrived多用来指动、植物的繁荣与昌盛[C]prospered多用来指经济主面的繁荣[D]flourished多用来指植物的茂盛。

19.选[C]。[A]overturn:,颠覆[B]overtake,追上,赶上[C]offset,抵销,冲销[D]oppress,压迫。句中的growth和decline之间的关系可以用offset。

20.选[B]。[A]firm,公司[B]伴侣[C]公司[D]企业。收音机(radio)不仅仅是一种传媒工具,还是一个伴侣,其他三项均不符合题意。

21.选[D]。[A]novel,新鲜的[B]remote,遥远的[C]distant,遥远的[D]foreign,外来的,陌生的。本句大意是,当任何非人类器官移值于人体时,人体立刻辨别出这个器官是外来的。

22.选[C]。[A]trifled with:怠慢,小看(某人)[B]scraped through,勉强维持生活[C]stumbled upon,偶然看见,偶然发现[D]thirsted for,渴望。显然,只有[C]项符合句意。

23.选[B]。可以很快排除[C]deteriorate:变坏和[D]depress,萧条,贬值。[A]descend和[B]decline都表示"下跌,下降"的意思,但descend一般用来指事物从一个较高的位置上落到较低的位置上,表示空间方位的变化,而decline的用法比要descend广,既可指空间位置的变化,又可指其他方面,如需求数量的减少。

24.选[A]。[C]项和[D]项可以很快排除。[B]是强干扰项,空格后面的各词是safety standards(安全标准),因此其前面的词只能填遵守,即[A]conforming to。[B]consistent with是"与…连贯"的意思。

25.选[C]。句子要表明biotechnology和dectronics的关系,[D]strive,努力做…可予以排除。[A][B][C]三项都含有"竞争"的意思,但[A]多用于contend for(争取这一结构[B]contest后面也直接跟所要争取的事物,例如,contest a seat in Parliament,只有[C]rival后面直接跟竞争的对手。

26.选[A]。所给四个选项需要理解句意,还需要真有一定的关于美国宪法的背景知识,美国是一个联邦制国家,其宪法特点是在加强中央政府权力的同时,也维护了各州的自治权和独立权。由此不难看出本题只能选[A]。本句大意是:美国宪法的作者们试图建立一个有效的国家政府,并且与此同时维护各州的自治权和个人的自由。

27.选[D]。所给四个副词的意思分别是:[A]准确地[B]立刻,马上[C]首要地[D]唯一地,单独地。四个词只有exclusively才可以被almost修饰,而且也最符合句意。

28.选[B]。所给四个形容词的意思分别是:[A]模糊的,不清楚的[B]过时的,可选择的[D]交叉的,重叠的。火药的引进只能使弓箭成为过时的器械,故[B]为正确选项。

29.选[B]所给四个形容词的意思分别是:[A]自然的,自发的[B]假设的[C]直觉的[D]经验的。根据常识可知,任何关于宇宙起源的理论都是假设的,是需要证明的,故只有[B]项正确。

30.选[D]。所给四个短语的意思分别是:[A]与…不合[B]处于困境之中[C]徒劳的,白费工夫的[D]处于险境。从句意来看,公司的未来只能是面临危险,所以只有[D]为确切答案。

31.选[D]。the trial of Rosemary West与空格前面的prominent cases是具体案例和泛指的关系,所以选[D]such as,表示举例。

32.选[A]。空格后面的名词是legal control,所填入的动名词要表达"加强法律控制"的意思,只能用[A]tightening,其他三个选项的意思分别是:[B]加剧[C]集中[D]加紧,拴牢。

33.选[D]。draft,草稿darft bill,草案。[C]preliminary(预备的,初步的)是一个强干扰项,但该词表示的意思是"在做正事之前做准备工作"的意思,不符合文章大意。

34.选[B]。由文章的第一段可知立法的目的就是要使新闻媒体给证人付酬成为非法活动,因此,只有[B]illegal正确。其他三个选项的意思分别[A]不符合逻辑的[C]不可能的[D]不恰当的。

35.选[A]。对于英国众院来说,这只能立法控制媒体对一件案例的报道的公开性,故只能选[A]publicity。其他三个选项的意思分别是:[B]惩罚[C]受欢迎程度[D]古怪性。

36.选[C]。所给四个选项中只有[C]before最确切。只有在审判之前控制一件案例的公开程度才是合理的。

37.选[D]。空格后面的名词是a committee report。从动词搭配而言,四个选项都可以,但是[A]sided后面一般接人,表示与某人采取同样的立场,side with sb[B]shared表示"分享"的意思[C]complied with 表示"遵守,服从"的意思。Lord Irvine是一个法官,所以[D]为正确选项。

38.选[B]。所给四个选项的意思分别是:[A]present,呈送[B]offer,提供[C]manifest,表明,呈现[D]indicate,暗示。从句意来看,只有[B]最恰当。

39.选[B]。从本段内容来看,Lord Irvine的讲话引起了媒体的抗议。他讲话两天后,他的信被发表了,应该用publication。[A]release一般用来指唱片、电影、书籍的发行[C]printing,印刷[D]exposure,曝光,一般指不同的事情公布于众,但从上下文可知,Lord Irvine的信不能被看作此类事物。

40.选[A]。用storm(暴风雨)来体现媒体抗议的强烈程度。rage,发怒flare,交光,闪耀flash,闪光,都不符合句意。

41.选[B]。空格后的名词是privacy controls(隐私控制)。由于文章讲的主要是英国众院立法禁止新闻媒体向目击者付酬,而这样的立法引起了媒体的抗议。争议的焦点是对欧洲立法中的包含的隐私控制的归属问题。所以此处只能用interpretational(解释,阐释)。其他三项都不符合句意。

42.选[C]。从文章内容来看,是法官拥有对隐私控制的解释权还是国会拥有对隐私控制的解释权是争议的重要问题,因而法官和国会是互相对立的关系,两者只能取其一。所给四个选项中只有rather than(…而不是)表达了这样的意思。other than是强干扰项,它表达的意思是"除了…还",包括其后的名词,不表示排除。

43.选[B]。从整句话内容来看,此处只能makes,与44题中的形容词构成贴切的表达。

44.选[A]。binding的意思是:有约束力的,有束缚力的。

45.选[C]。be entitled to sth是固定表达方式,意思是"有权利做…,有权利享受…"。其他三项不能用于这样的结构。

46.选[A]。此处填介词with表原因。本句的意思是:由于有我们的英国法官,新闻自由才会被安全把握。

47.选[D]。从文章来看,有关给目击人付酬的争论并没有结束,因此才成了一个争论点(issue)。

48.选[C]。这里用的是sb is said to ...的结构,意思是:据说,…。49.选[D]。此处填入that,引导一个同位语从句,表明concerns的内容。

50.选[C]。容易排除的是[B]confide(向…告以心事)。[A][C][D]互为干扰项。[A]assure的意思是:"使确信,使放心"[D]guaranotee的意思是"保证"[C]ensure的词义则此较广泛,不光有"保证"的意思,还有"使某事必然发生"的意思。这一意项也是在文章中应取的意思。文章最后一句话的意思是,有人担心这样做(给目击证人付酬)会鼓励目击证人在法庭上过分渲染他们的故事,从而导致有罪的判决。

51.选[D]。本题属细节类题目。文章第二段最后一句为正确解答本题提供了帮助。这一句中的关键词是"in those areas of science based especially on a mathe matical or laboratory training"这就表明了专业分工较为明显的学科的性质,即一般都是建立在数学或实验室研究方面的学科。所给四个选项中只有[D]物理学和化学是正确选项。

52.选[B]。本题的答案不是很明显,可用排除法来解决。文章第一段最后两句指出"专业分工是影响交流过程的一系列相关科学发展中的一部分。另一个是科学活动不断增长的专业化趋势"。由这两句可看出,专业分工和专业化是科学发展的两方面,两者是有区别的,所以[A]"专业分工和专业化之间没有什么差别"是不正确的。从文章第三段可以看出专业科技人员和业余科技人员是持"不相容"态度的,而且随着专业化的不断发展,这种"不相容"关系更加明显,所以[C]"专业人员倾向于欢迎业余人员加入到他们的科学团体中去"是错误的。第三段最后一句话中的"whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way"表示业余科技人员既有地方团体也有国家团体,所以[D]是错误的。经排除后只有[B]才是唯一的正确选项。

53.选[C]。此题属于把握作者意图类题目,可以从文章第二段最后一句找到线索。这句中的trend 指的就是科学活动中专业分工和专业化的趋势。原文中的The trendcan be illuserated in terms of the development of geology换成了题目中的主动语态,illustrate换成了demonstrate。

54.选[C]。文章第一段第一句提供了本题的答案。原文中的an increasing accumalation of suentific knowledge换成了被选项中的the expansion of scientific knowledge。

55.选[C]。本题不是要对digital divide 下定义,而是作出评价。文章第一段中的"Mywife and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago"对digital divide做了评价,关键词是looming danger(隐约出现的危险),表明digital divide是有危险的,因此全世界需要防范。

56.选[A]。文章第二段前半部分指出了政府重视互联网的原因--互联网越开放,就意味着更多的顾客。关键句是afraid their countries will be left behind。

57.选[D]。文章第四段前两句提供了本题的线索。这两句的意思是:要利用这一工具,一些贫穷国家需要克服(get over)他们待外国投资那种落后的反殖民主义的仿见。那些仍然视外国投资为对已主权侵略的国家也许应好好学习一下美国基础设施建设的历史。从这两句话可以看出作者提及美国的目的是要说明贫穷国家要采取吸收外资的政策。

58.选[A]。文章第三段为本题提供了线索。本段指出了Internet的重要性。同时文章最后一段中…which today is an electronic infrastructure"也表明了电子工业对一个国家经济发展的重要性。

59.选[B]。文章第一段的第一句以问句的形式表明了本文的主旨,即要寻找许多美国人对报纸报导不信任的原因,也就是[B]项的内容。

60.选[D]。文章第二段指出新闻可信度调查项目的调查结果只是"low level findings abont factual errors, and grammar mistakes, …"。可见这些调查结果是很肤浅的(superfalial)。

61.选[C]。从文章第三段开始,文章找出了读者不信任新离报导的许多种原因,包括新闻业内部传统的报导模式(conventional story line)、新闻记者和读者在文化和社会上的脱节。文章第六段指出,"The astonishing distrust of the news media isn't rooted in …but in the daily clash of world views between reporters ard their readets",表明新闻记者不受信任的基本原因是他们的世界观,原文中的world views换成了被选项中的world ontlook。

62.选[A]。文章的最后一段指出报业仍然不能满足读者的原因是it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases…,也就是说报业没有意识到它的真正问题。

63.选[C]。文章的第一句即为本题提供了答案。原文中的mergers and acquisitions(合并与兼并)换成了被选项中的combine and become bigger。

64.选[C]。(本题属细节类题目,可从文章直接定位并且运用排除法找出正确选项。)文章三段指出了巨大兼并。合并潮的推动力,包括运输和通讯费用的降低,较低的贸易和投资壁垒,需要采用扩大经营方式才能满足顾客需要的扩大的市场。显然,只有[A]是正确选项。

65.选[D]。本题属于推理类题目。正确解答此题的关键是要正确理解第四段第二句话 It is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could re-create the same threats to competition that were …, when the stardard oil trust was broken up。这句话表明标准石油托拉期在一个世界以前有可能威胁竞争,但今天的合并则不会。hard to imagine(很难想象)"。

66.选[B]。本题属于把握作者观念点类题目。文章最后一段第一句指出,the fast remains that the merger movement must be watched(然而事实是合并运动有待观望),这表明作者对这股生意潮的态度是比较客观的(objective)。另外从整篇文章来看,作者的态度也是很客观的,例如在第四段作者讲到兼并的益处,但最后一段涉及兼并会引起的各种问题。

67.选[B]。本题一道推理性题目,需要正确理解文章第一段才能做出正确选择,本段第一指出是作者辞去全职工作时才发现自己加入了一个国际大潮中,显然全职工作不是这个国际大潮。第二句中的a lateral move的意思是"平行移动,横向移动",显然不是指不做全职工作。而正是这个伤害作者自尊心、阻碍她职业发展的"平行移动"促使她放弃了她较高形象的职业生涯。本段最后一句指出作者声称:"I wanted to spend more time with my family"只是用来"cover"她的职职的。可见,作者是由于环境因素才辞去工作的,[B]为正确选项。

68.选[B]。文章第二段提供了本题的线索。第二段中的transformed ... into ...表明了作者在生活观上的改变,而这都是由于她采取了"顺其自然"(downshifting)的生活方式的结果。

69.选[C]。从文章整篇内容来看(主要是第三段),downshifting和juggling your life是两种相对立的生活方式。既然downshifting是顺其自然,juggling your life就意味着生活中有很多压力,同时第三段对juggling your life做了具体的描述:12小时工作日,紧迫的交稿期限,办公室政治的可怕压力以及在限定时间做人母的局限。可见juggling your life是指一种充满了极端压力的生活。

70.选[D]。文章第五段第一句话为本题提供了线索。"While in American the trend (downshifting) started as a vacation to the economic decline",表明在美国这种趋势是经济衰退的反应。

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